Crop rotation for annual flowers
Traditionally, crop rotation is selected for vegetables and herbs. But even in a decorative garden it would be nice to think in time about the rules for changing plants. It is especially worth being careful with annual flowers, because many of your favorite flowering summers are quite moody. The rules for the selection of previous and subsequent crops for annual flowers are very simple and are based mainly on the relationship of plants. Observing them in practice is much easier than in the case of vegetables in the beds.
Factors determining the rotation of pilots
For ornamental plants, crop rotation rules - smart alternation, neighborhood and separation of plants - are not built according to the same laws as for vegetable crops. In the garden, crop rotation is often critical, and its principles, laws and recommendations are among the most stringent. With flower beds, everything is somewhat different.
For all ornamental annual plants, crop rotation is constructed in such a way as to exclude two main problems:
- risk of pollination, loss of varietal purity;
- the spread of pests and diseases.
In this case, the first factor is of significance only in the collection of own seeds, self-sowing or selection experiments. But plant health is the main reason for strict adherence to crop rotation. Sowing the same pilots in the same place, and repeated sowing of pilots in the same soil without interruption for many years, can lead to such an accumulation of pathogenic elements that young plants will not survive. Loss of crops and plantings, degeneration of a favorite variety or species - the risk is too great to ignore.
For any annuals, crop rotation is easy to calculate: unlike vegetables, plant rotation is determined by fairly obvious parameters:
- belonging to one family;
- resistance or instability to diseases and pests.
Any "commonality" and similarities is the reason for dividing the plants and not planting them one after another in the same place. Conversely, discrepancies in any characteristic allow the use of plants as precursors for more capricious species or after them.
If you want to avoid problems with the spread of pests and diseases, always seek maximum disclosure of varietal characteristics, for any flyers, with the exception of orderlies and legumes, you should follow the general rule - return them to the same place again no sooner than after 5 years. At the same time, one can both repeat the same “five-year” scheme and change cultures arbitrarily.
In order not to get confused in the order of planting, it is worth keeping records for individual flower beds, flower beds and other places of planting. Annual plans and small notes on the results will help to avoid mistakes in the rotation of annual flowers. It is especially difficult to remember all the details and the sequence for large flower gardens with a large number of species. For long-term planning and quick sketching, such diaries of crop rotation are the best helpers.
Basic strategies for annual crop rotation
There are three main strategies for organizing crop rotation of annual flowers:
- The alternation of annuals is the change of capricious species with sanitary orderlies or species enriching the soil with nitrogen.
- Alternating annuals with perennials, biennials, or bulbs.
- Change of pilots to vegetables, herbs, herbs or green manure.
If traditional crop rotation strategies are not suitable or the soil is severely depleted, needs improvement or texture improvement, the soil after summers can be left “steamed” for a whole year with treatment with herbicides, biological products, the application of organic and mineral, soil-forming fertilizers and multiple cultivation.
Ideal “changers” for moody annual flowers
The most famous for their sensitivity to sowing and planting seedlings in the same place - garden asters. The fact that these beautiful annual flowers need to be constantly moved around the garden is known to every experienced gardener. Without crop rotation, asters become extremely vulnerable to Fusarium infection, and the entire collection of varieties can be lost already at the budding stage.
Asters do not return to their original place for 5-6 (or more) years, they are often replaced with cloves (in the “scheme”, then you can sow sweet peas, left-handed, calendula, snapdragon), marigolds (nasturtium, zinnia, eschscholtius).
But not only asters need changers. Godetia, balsamins, verbena, lobelia - these are just a few species for which crop rotation is strictly observed.
Ideal candidates for alternation with any plant is easy to determine. Among the huge assortment of flyers there are unique plants that can be used for alternating with more capricious species and improving the soil and organizing proper crop rotation on flower beds from letniks.
The "orderlies" of the soil suppress pathogens and spores, make it possible to improve the soil, improve the microflora and activate the biological environment. Usually they are planted before and after other plants, literally interspersing their favorite annual flowers.
The orderlies include:
- annual phlox;
A special group consists of ornamental plants from the legume family, which can be equated in their effect to siderates that enrich the soil with nitrogen. Fire beans, sweet peas, annual lupins are rightly considered universal species for alternation, and they can be included in the crop rotation with any plants. They are especially effective on depleted soil.
Perennial, biennial and other alternatives to alternating pilots
The change of herbaceous perennials to annual plants and vice versa can only be called crop rotation conditionally. The most capricious and rapidly degenerating perennials, for example, carpet phlox, fescue or geyhera, require division with a frequency of 2-3 years. In place of the divided plants, you can safely plant any summers for one year, then replacing them with more permanent plants.
Two-year-olds can also be included in a crop rotation with summers. They perfectly alternate with both orderlies and capricious flowers like an aster. Turkish cloves, pansies, digitalis, daisies, lunar, forget-me-nots - all, without exception, biennial species are suitable. True, using them alone is impractical due to vacant areas.
Seedlings of pansies and Co. are used with bulbs, requiring annual digging after flowering, for example, with varietal tulips. Planting tulips in the fall, and in May - biennial seedlings, you can effectively use the entire available area. Both biennials and onions can be used as separate, not combined species for alternating with capricious summers.
Any annual flowers alternate well with annual vegetables. Here the principle works from the opposite: vegetables perfectly alternate with airmen-orderlies, and any airmen-with vegetable plantings. You can plant on the plots empty after the annual flowers, and your favorite salads, radishes, greens to the table. Legumes and leafy vegetables have the best effect on the soil.
If you decide to give the soil a rest, it is not necessary to resort to the strategy of empty flower beds. Siderata can be sown several times during the season, from mustard and lupine to oats and erysipelas, which will allow a dramatic improvement in soil quality in a year.
Areas after infected plants require special attention.
If any flyers were affected by pests or diseases, it is worthwhile to plan plantings next year only with sanitation crops. They contribute to the improvement of the soil, releasing volatile. You can, in general, leave the site empty for soil improvement.
In place of crops affected by Fusarium, it is better not to plant any annual species prone to this disease, primarily asters. Reliably protected by a strikingly dense cover, spores of Fusarium remain in the soil, despite any frost, for 4-5 years.
In a favorable "environment" they infect new plants through the roots. Infection at first is not so easy to notice: the longitudinal stripes at the base of the stems only after some time are “supplemented” by yellowing and twisting of the lower leaves.